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GUIDES

GENERAL

Choosing a Host

Hosting Terminology

Protection of contents


SCRIPTING

Beginners Guide to Telnet

Basic UNIX Commands

CHMOD and setting
permissions Guide

Basic guide to CRONTAB

Basic Guide to Paths

UNIX COMMANDS GLOSSARY

 

This Glossary is by no means a full listing of all the available commands in UNIX but a listing of the most commonly used commands in relation to telnet and website usage for web page maintenance.

A full listing of commands is available from the University of Edinburgh site by clicking here

 

   
Command cd    
Description cd  Change directory 
This command is used to move around directories (folders) on the server
Usage cd

This command entered on it's own would return you to your home directory

cd  folder1/folder2

Entering the above would move you from your current directory to folder2 directory

cd  ..

Entering the above would move you up one level in your directory structure (note the space between cd and the dots)

Other Information Entering a full system path to a directory will take you to that directory. Otherwise folder2 as shown above Must be a subdirectory of folder1 which Must be a sub directory of the current directory    
   
Command pwd  
Description pwd  Print working directory 
This command is used to show the current directory path 
Usage pwd

This command will return the full system path to the current directory.
eg if you were in a directory called home and entered pwd you might get a output like 

/usr/local/apache/home

   
Command ls    ( lowercase" L" )
Description ls  List Files 
This command is used to list the files and sub directories in the current directory
Usage ls

This command entered on it's own would list all the files and directories in your current directory

ls  systempathto/home

Entering the above would list the contents of the home directory (use the full system path)

eg   ls  usr/local/apache/home
would list the contents of
home directory

Other Information ls  has several switches    

Usage    ls   switch   path

ls  - l
Entering the above will produce a list output in long form
shows additional information such as the files permissions etc.

ls  - t
Entering the above will produce a list output sorted by the time stamp of the files

ls  - a
Entering the above will produce a list output including hidden files like dot files eg .htaccess

ls  - al
Entering the above will produce a list output including hidden files in long (full) format

ls  - l  /full/system/path/to/home
Entering the above will produce a list in long form of the home directory 

   
Command mkdir    
Description mkdir  Make directory 
This command is used to make a new directory (folder)
Usage mkdir  directoryname

This command will make a new directory named directoryname

Other Information mkdir   switch    

Usage    ls   switch   directoryname

mkdir - m permission directoryname
Entering the above will make the directory directoryname with permissions set to permission

Example

mkdir -m 744 thisname 
Entering the above would create a directory named
thisname with it's permissions set to 744
   
Command which    
Description which  Which path 
This command is used to locate a command file on the system
Usage

which  perl
Entering the above would output the path to perl on the system If there is more than one version installed it would result by listing all instances found.
Another example
which  perl5
Would result in the system path to perl version 5

Other Information Another command with similar results is
whereis  perl
another example
whereis  sendmail
Would result in the system path to sendmail on your server

TIP: If you get lots of results look for one that is in the /usr/ directory and ends in just sendmail .This should be the path you require.

   
Command perl    
Description perl   invoke the perl interpretor 
This command is used to run a perl program from telnet or command line prompt.
Usage

perl  filename

Entering the above would run the script named filename

Example: perl test.cgi  would run test.cgi script
Note you would need to be in the directory in which test.cgi resides.

Other Information To use this command with a specific version of perl you would use the full system path to that version of perl

Example: /usr/bin/perl5 test.cgi
Would run the script test.cgi located in the current directory using the perl5 interperator located at /usr/bin/perl5     

   
Command chmod    
Description chmod   Changes the permissions of a file or          directory 
This command is used to set the permissions i.e. who can read, write or execute  a file or directory
Usage

chmod   Is a subject on it's own
             Click here for more details

   
Command crontab    
Description crontab   Crontab is a task scheduler 
This command is used to schedule tasks to be carried out a prearranged times or dates
Usage

crontab   Is a subject on it's own
             Click here for more details

   
Command man    
Description man   Manual the help files
This command is used to give you access to the help files held on the server
Usage

man  command

Example: man chmod  would send the help file on the chmod command to your screen a screen full at a time 
Note: Press the spacebar for the next screen full or type q to quit

man -k keyword

Example: man -k copy  will display a one line overview of each command that has copy in it's description

man -k 'phrase'

Example: man -k 'move directory'  will display
a one line overview of each command that has the phrase
move directory in it's description

 

Other Information

The manual is split up into 8 sections listed below

  • 1     User Commands
  • 1M  System Admin Commands
  • 2      System Calls
  • 3      Library Functions
  • 4      File formats
  • 5      Headers Macros and Tables
  • 7      Special Files
  • l       Local Commands  (lowercaseL)       

When you get see also commandname(3) it means there is more details supplied in manual section 3 (library formats.
to view that you would enter the following command

man 3 commandname

  WARNING USE WITH CAUTION
Command rmdir    
Description rmdir   Remove a directory ( Delete ) 
This command is used to delete a directory 

WARNING USE CAREFULLY THERE IS NO RECYCLE BIN !!!

Usage

rmdir directoryname   

This will remove the directory directoryname  

  WARNING USE WITH CAUTION
Command rm    
Description rm   Remove a file ( Delete ) 
This command is used to delete a file 

WARNING USE CAREFULLY THERE IS NO RECYCLE BIN !!!

Usage

rm name   

This will delete the file name 

rm *.cgi

This will delete all the files in the current directory with the extension cgi 

rm *.*

This will delete all the files in the current directory

   

DOS TO UNIX TYPICAL TRANSLATION

Command Details DOS UNIX
list files (brief details)
list files (full details )

change directory

change file permissions

get help

delete file

delete directory

create directory

dir/w
dir

chdir or cd

attrib

help

erase or del

rd or rmdir

md or mkdir

ls
ls -l

cd

chmod

man

rm

rmdir

mkdir


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